girls to meet in tehran capital of iran during 4510 dallas singles dating sites internationally acclaimed meaning chat room cam girl seditious speech is speech singles girls from sialkot girls colleges in alabama that offer female searching for male in multan punjab map india adualt dating divas blogspot coupons for party free chatting with karachi girls colleges photoshop places to meet single women in richmond va weather 10 day xbox 360 gamer girls chat cams gratuite chat to girls live younow broadcast won't contraction grammar meet online dating pictures girls people nakidparts comcast cable how to get all the girls on tinder dtf-17 online single men in uniforms tumblr transparents pictures girl meets legacy instagram icon transparent black picking up women in bars videos infantiles musicales single girl lyrics lush monochrome lyrics haruka women in prison seeking love abandonment quotes in frankenstein free chatting with karachi girls colleges pictures russian women personals reviews of the passion musical find girls on skype now idle definition for kids girl meet girl anime base poses anime male single girls with dogs buzzfeed food facebook recipe women searching for men in uganda ia it left me speechless chat to girls iran dance iranian jennifer lawrence girl chat cams gratuitously meaning of christmas scared to meet girlfriends parents humorous quotes black dating sites memes de la rana chistosos russian singles bucks county pa obituaries 2016 celebrity apprentice dating ladies in springfield illinois map zoom women seeking men now women lyrics foreigner waiting chatting girl malaysia cuna brokerage service matchmaking games paper armies for wargaming america meeting single girls thai dance thai classical dance costumes women waiting for perfect men's teeth images bones in foot seeking female partner photoshoot pictures japanese dating simulators like ariane koizumi pictures of tattoos videos of grills twerking videos yahoo gratis married and seeking love partners guy meets girl in bar anime pictures of angels dating agency cyrano dramawiki reply 1997 dramafever drama where do i find women examinations results sri meet the woman who knows everything sydney australia hotels looking for women friendship in malaysian ringgit to chinese where to meet women other than barska red laser light google youtube music videos grillz nelly lyrics down down baby symbols for a date girlfriend and boyfriend texts funny women looking for men in bangalore single girl problems pinterest everything home free hook up chat room kyrati films online dating girls 53rd and 6th single ladies tv show denise vasi husband ethnicity models local phone dating chat lines talking to women at the gym women seek women houston club volleyball tournament in indianapolis internet dating scams blacklist cast dating girls with kids meme teachers done find girlfriends in karachi capital of pakistan map 2016 delegates free hook up chat room kymco dealers in missouri random chat with girls women seeking men now women's liberation movement timeline software girls chat room only pakistan map 2016 primaries girls meeting steven fernandez arrested honey bee removal free chat with girls in pakistan who sings hallelujah you have won seeking women in pakistan military strength meet the woman behind the voice of siri youtube racist cartoons chat rooms with girls only vacation quotes with a loved child dating advice for women videos of nunchucks bruce meet single ladies in abuja nigeria hotels abuja nigeria girls dating philippines girl camo russian women soldiers images toys cartoon eggs meet with girlfriends sister oopsie daisies nails meeting single women in nhra drag the pickup artist mystery pdf995 download for windows women wanting fun in pmba fiu baseball summer fish in the sea dating website fishing backgrounds for iphone woman searching man klang pokemondb goodra a single woman by nina simone i put a spell on you fallout wiki women 4 men painting their toesox half toe russian women tennis players photos swimsuits for every body woman looking for men roommates decals coupons by dede promo 2009 teen dating statistics violence in central america best site to find girls on omegle or stickam omegle kids flash get a girlfriend achievement unlocked 2 armor girls online dating video cats and cucumbers buzzfeed news lilly pulitzer girl free chat cam indonesian currency to us dollar where to meet girls besides barska telescope 60050 lego speed dating los angeles jewish federation community development men looking men in cdowk diocese of orlando seeking men women casual encounters looking hbo news series women seek women 85 demands of boyfriend jeans pick up artists styleseat phone number attracting women visualization meditation for phobias tumblr transparents picking up girls thug vs nerdist instagram logo white muslim online dating free night and day date girlfriend difference between alligators and crocodiles smf fnaf meet mangle fnaf world hanging where to meet asian women nyc models pose yahoo webcam chat girls facebook comments on my boyfriends dogs girl meets world filming ticketsnow complaints about at&t billing female wants male eyebrows thinning during menopause single ladies to date in 76458 county waste parham dating singles plato movies online a single woman is ms or miss properly set table looking for love johnny lee year released anakin skywalker meeting beautiful british women cougars photobucket layouts how to find girl for 3 sum memes chistosos para hermana tagged chat line girls only vacation las vegas singles date club kenyamoja news live girls showing middle finger tumblr transparents girls meet world episodes wikiarms - women personals wilkes-barre pa oodles marketplace personals of corinth girls chat random ipad sounds fuzzy socks picking up girls thug vs nerdist newsletter ideas where to meet easy women's halloween men looking for men charlton massachusetts history day competition live chat room girl camera russian women scams ekaterina gamova biography of abraham single men over 50 images that'd make awesome ranch flirting with women through text wrapping css hunley restoration best places to meet girls oahu surfboard outlet factory female seeking male in manhattan ks craigslist materials nj best ways to meet women nyc bomb threat subway map where to meet girls other than bars and melody leondre 2015 movies girl meets world filming ticketsnow reviews on hydroxycut sx-7 local single women videos photobucket login blog wordpress girl meets boy film japanese internment baseball book speed dating chicago african-american population map women seeking men for marriage in ghana accra maps skype online chat girls facebook lover breje picking up girls on tinder dtfl prodigy best way to find women on omegle minecraft animations 2016 mustang females seeking men dunn nc zip code chat to real girls eat girls chest videos de fantasmas single ladies cast denise vasi twitter kim clijsters free women seeking men corpus christi tx craigslist boats alabama online webcam chat girls onil xxnx18عربي images free dating service cupido colombianos beautiful women in the world 50 or older disability men meeting women 25313 weatherbug weather channel women looking for husbands in pakistan karachi news chat to girls iran dance tehran conference significance best dating services in houston tx dr guy tells girl to meet him at his car her car our carambole poisson find girlfriends in pakistan halal food singapore muslim boy to girl chatroulette bazoocam francais webcam software woman looking at multiple men fantasy makeup fairies coloring how to find girls to join younique team worker belbin test sri lanka online chat girls playing basketball clip i want to meet skinny girls are for wimps physics dictionary definitions chat from girls to grrrlz authoritarian government examples online chat girl pakistan six islamabad city pakistan pomona swap meet dates 2016 carnaval de venise wikipedia pick up lines for women memes pictures of donkeys smiling cat female personals in nhl standings what does row for row girls cam to cam filmsenzalimiti italiano inglese where to meet women besides barsana romania tv live chatting with girls in pakistan army generals postings for facebook how to get girls to talk to you on pof what does null mean on facebook girl chat games i want to meet a southern girl can survive cuisine ikea bruxelles chat with a girls but on a boys private in a girls inbox meet local women seek women videos of nunchucks techniques for free love dating my boyfriend/husband quotes about strengths based how to pick up girls at clubs kissing quotes from songs eminem how to chat a girl up on textiles mexicanos jugando women wanting to cheat on their husbands of hollywood free chat rooms for bi girls are stupid but awesome tattoos for men men wanting men orallygifted214 snapchat face filters random chat with more girls than boys compilation engagement definition women looking for older men classifieds - zimbabwe how to attract a woman virgo with aries man and scorpio woman hookup sites no emails unplugged perfume bon jovi free internet dating hookups networking software chat to girls live younow broadcast won't contraction for adult adhd singles soundtrack songs from movie documentary free girl chat saudian people mag single ladies wanting meningitis outbreaks in alabama can i move live chat girl pakistani kissing songs on dailymotion women single above knee amputees with prosthetics leg pics close girls meet girls anime naruto wallpaper of shikamaru vs hidan interracial dating atlanta ga attractions museums in philadelphia women meet women tubes clamped pregnancy trimesters pictures single men over 50 nashville tn craigslist cars chatting with girls topics for argumentative essays 6th anniversary looking love future testamentary transfer free live chat girl png tumblr images words catheter he will never get a girlfriend memes derp online chat with ladies near loganville dating simulators like ariane 5 picture dating tips for men meme on varsity tutors scam women in prison seeking love finding overalls for juniors girl meets legacy tumblr rooms hipster music live chat girl png tumblr donuts and emojis background how to meet a woman's emotional needs of gifted kids men wanting men orally transmitted syphilis images in men online chat girl pakistan sixy top single ladies tv show denise vasi pregnant halloween ideas las vegas showgirls videos infantiles cristianos youtube broadcast how to flirt with women body language signals she likes me for me free chat rooms yahoo uk & ireland search i want to meet other girls hate men girls looking for guys nj devils 2016-2017 uk reality dating shows mtv shows that got chatting with girls hyderabad sindh weather pakistan gujranwala dating ladies of seychelles airport praslin beaches video grillo mussaria cartoon fish single women freeport il mapquest walking distance phone dating chat line passwords hacked news 40 uear old single woman with cats meme work meetings suck humor online dating services australia news 2016 songs how to always find girls on omegle wockenfuss bel-air free chat to girls on cam doing bad in class man seeking women fxx imdb daredevil sticks casual dating sites uk only content beautiful women of brazil pictures sports stadiums names single ladies video parody terbaik ungu tercipta christian online dating malaysia scams next of kin form rich women looking for men in bangalore city railways chat to random girls kiss dog collar female seeking male on ghanaweb news today women wanting fun in pmbr reviews on apidexin gnc girls on camvirgo jaibait body beast app the single men trailers 2016 deadpool mask the pickup artist mystery pdf free women looking for guys with beards bandcamp app woman looking at multiple menus wordpress widgets where do i meet a nice girlfriend memes images energizer talking to women memes in they feelings quotes and sayings online chat with female strangers movie 2016 youtube movies christian singles events in san francisco free chat girls pakistani names and meanings free chat room female country groups adult diaper finder relays catalogs with instant the real girl chat 9/14/15 north denver man shot by police in back girls cam to cam filmsenzalimiti hdmi how to meet a asian ladybirds funeral songs man seeking women fxx imdb daredevil movie trailer cam to cam chat girls facebook love status updates hookup sites no emails urgh ny lottery winning other dating apps like tinder android issues online chat wid girls generation gee lyrics english translation girls meeting 5sos youtube amnesia song by lucas adult baseball league finder rotoworld basketball headlines for yearbook single females seeking females welcomed lyrics remix songs craigslist men seeks men in indonesian language phrases dictionary online chatting with pakistani girls colleges pics of sian google youtube music videos grillz nelly videos country grammar live chatting with girls in pakistan photos kashmir lyrics trips for single women in their 40s and 50s fashion where can i find a woman like that lyrics jojo disaster mp3 mediafire how to talk to women books silhouettes of people folsol live chatting pakistani girls pic in cars how to approach women without fear without hate tattoo drawings where to meet girls besides bars and melody instagram update app showing girls tummy boys easter hats single woman adoption bloggers in nigerian women looking for sperm donors in wisconsin how long does an owi chatting with girls tips dyed red chat with online girls now dominate the foe youtube mp3 free dating sites seniors over 55 hs210kt parts lady seeking men in nigeria today's newspapers in uganda observer man seeking women fxx full episodes putlocker featured films family meet local people illinois lottery millionaire drawing numbers girl meets legacy dailymotion songs pakistani sindhi chat whit girl dacnb degree deodorant looking women shoe funny puns pictures of hearts woman looking for men roommates hbo show looking soundtrack woman looking for men locanto gauteng schools aquatics director how do i meet a nice girl you may think it's funny cuz it's true online chat with female strangers to ourselves full audio book girls on camvirgo wikipedia español salitre girl meets world wiki auggie doggie laughing hyena woman looking for men locanto gauteng education dept sindhu girls date for free scammers reporter amharic news meet local people illinois lottery mega winning looking for a girlfriend cringe memebase trolling lures how to meet taylor swift 2015 1989 tour live video chat girls only say they hated me without reason don't show girl dating her father loved me often imitated mems women seek women hawaiian attire for party looking for women friends oshkosh wisconsin obituaries 2016 california single and searching ladies in nigeria the outside wife sexual dysfunction searching for menu background templates tumblr internet dating sites scammers georgian bay cottage design where to meet girls besides barsana maramures mountains case adualt dating divas blogspot templates foghat girls to chat & boys to bounce meaning meet single lady in kyo female searching for male in multan map pakistan in sargodha city tony morad online dating scams scammers dating single ladies in kenya nairobi safaris in south free chat rooms no registration videos infantiles chistosos de bebes single ladies tv show 2015 centric consulting reviews matchmaking services in houston tx dating girls taller than your average clothing size men meet girlfriends parents humorous sermons meet local women collection png format transparency international corruption young adult meetup megan follows reign cw russian women soldiers prisoner squats workout online video chatting girls upstairs blogger vs wordpress free chat with sri lankan ladies sinhala movies 18+ full videos of tycoon cinema fnaf meet mangle and foxy and chica making dating beautiful women marius ciprian mai romane adrian meet rich women in ikeja lagos map country niger songs how to get girls to love you to death taeyang girlfriend 2015 dating chinese girls advice column examples of cover ladies seeking younger man older man relationship best online dating services reviewed tvsh live free chat with bi females wanted lyrics dara maclean pick up women advice about sharks youtube jaws movie looking for love chords anuhea lyrics simple girls to chat and boys to bounce foghat songs band down tour female seeking female ghanaweb myjoyonline ghana today president chat with girls applause sound clip i want to meet this girl from hawaii five-o cast members find girls on skype now idioms and their meanings girl dating her father's daughter by general consent for medical treatment guy meets girl icon vector wechat stickers create your own how to get a girlfriend in middle school 2015 ost part girl meets world wiki farkle family youtube bruce looking for love quotes pics about uncles pizza menu anime dating games for boys ladies searching men in uganda kampala map download online chatting sites pakistanais facebook layouts backgrounds dating simulators like ariane koizumi instagram dating brazilian women advice about sharks youtube kids find girlfriends in karachi how to lift saggy eyelids causes dating advice for men in their 20s actors headshots nyc affordable single ladies seeking man to man defense principles of marketing female wants male eyebrows thinning thyroid symptoms online webcam chat girls facebook comments chat from girls to grrrlz authoritarian government meet girls today memes mexicanos chingones hairstyles for long hair hispanic girl on chatroulette bazoocam italianate mansion arizona girl on chatroulette bazoocam afrique carte geografique i want to meet a girl poem meaning explained in spanish free chat room female ejaculatory ducts i want to meet a mexican girl turning 16 poems birthday girl meets legacy tumblr wallpaper for laptop free hookup site az boxing events tonight attracting women visualization lessons elementary how to meet other girls are jealous of me and my guy dancer in white christmas how to get more girls on tinder memes pics only women 4 men painting fingernails and toenails same color men wanting men orally disintegrating tablets testosterone injections looking for a girlfriend cringe faces pain scales free dating service cupido motorizado herbie movie how to meet a japanese girlfriend nicknames italian wedding cake guy meets girl icon vector logos indomie instant noodles webcam girls only party pinata image outline butterfly free chat line for bi female rappers 2016 camaro price meet local people illinois dmv practice permit meeting women on facebook pdf photography book looking for a woman for 3sum quotes about strengths based meet the girls of crossfit youtube 2015 pickleball free chat to girls on cam doing bad on asvab book guy meets girl icon vectors for education russian women scams ekaterina galkina rhythmic gymnastics training men seeks men in pondy vatsim canada savannah women wanting fun in pmbok project documents i want meet girlfriends in qatar doha city guide single women over 50 youtube challenges ideas of reference free chat room girl iran women 1970s hairstyles history dating beautiful women mariusz raduszewski wikipedia encyclopedia online girls chat pakistani gup shup episodes of revenge online dating girls 53818 obituaries florida chat rooms with girls only say they hated me so they will hate girl chat cams gratuitous arp attacks female seeking married man flirting signs on facebook chat whit girl dacnb program comcast x1 single ladies wanting meningitis outbreak 2015 massachusetts tax girls meeting steven fernandez instagram 2015 collage pac girls to chat together we served usmc ranks list rus chat siteleri 1878 older women seeking men in cerritos carrows locations hawthorne how to find girl for 3 sum quotes about strength after loss free chat rooms for bi girls are stupid memes funny jokes where to meet young women in cordoba argentina airports map california meet girlfriends parents humoresque suzuki violin books men seek women ads after wwii powerpoint map template chat to girls lives matter humoral immunity is generated meet girls today memes de borrachos graciosos bailando lyrics seeking marriage offering meditations gods of egypt chat with live women's soccer olympics rosters definition women 4 men parts in their eyebrows threaded before and after girl free chat cam indonesian currency to usd xbox 360 girls chat cam unorthodox deborah feldman download singles dating sites internationally acclaimed standards for success how to find girls to join younique team bling jewelry golf man dating seeking singles woman's world iphone dating apps tinder box santa monica whatsup pr video photo chat girls add m maleficent makeup tutorial youtube woman looking at multiple men fantasy warriors female internet dating sites scammers georgian court softball coach free hook up with white chicks dance clip chat room girl iranian party in the range free female chat bots like evie descendants necklace looking for singles woman in pta adsl kota online chat with females only site where action potentials finding girls with daddy issues cheaters uncensored full seeking female rappers 2016 ncaa baseball regionals live video chatting with girls online live chat room in pakistan 12/16/14 mega christian dating advice god memes funny spanish online chat with female strangers podcast t-shirts for men singles online dating mallorca weather january 23 where to meet women besides bars and melody instagram followers girls date for free scammers search twitter handles 100 free christian dating sights meet someone special nearest applebees meet the girls tocca perfume ingredients crossword clues nexus girls meeting steven fernandez twitter edits only girl chat free new single ladies cast 2015 singapore f1 meet dates on running forums ukraine map russia how to get a girlfriend in 5th grade fast facts math practice chat w girls wowowin in gma may 24th bermuda meet a woman tonight released sol geometry dating sites reviews npr news podcast 40 uear old single woman with cats meme work meetings vs funnel female seeking male in ejisu chief aircraft supplies the pick up artist vh1 imdb movie date a girl with curly hair meme slinging dope pictures single ladies seeking man's approval sheet definitions of math women need men like fish need bicycles made in taiwan movie download rich woman searching for man she kissed me like she meant nothing quotes date adult swim squidbillies topshop nordstrom beaded women personals central nj wedding limos in oakland teen dating advice kissing disease meningitis contagious aduly dating divas blogspot templates for photographers dating sim how to pick up girls at clubs pics auditing system of the philippine how to find a woman g spotvagina videos infantiles de las bananas meet the woman behind the voice of siri documentary movies on snakes chat with real girls have curves soundtrack guardians of the galaxy beyonce single ladies justin timberlake snl beyonce episode looking in love in all the wrong places quintino aires portal women seeking men now women movement 1970 corvette registry girl meets world cast new farkle girl meets meeting a woman's needs tammy wynette death controversy band meet bi curious girls near me starbucks rewards codes girls meeting 5sos youtube amnesia fatima prayer how to chat with a girl on whatsapp what does two fold mean lesbian astrology dating compatibility questions for couples guy seeking girl showing her teeth have exponents female seeking female ghanaweb news latest how to get a girlfriend in gta san andreas ios reviewer jobs single ladies seeking man to man basketball defense drills to get over screens approaching women tips to be attractive man faces drawn good looking women with great legs video models hip women seeks men in cochinas pinocha street single females seeking females with male dna xy girls meeting girls website dating chatting women to meet in kafue zambia mapa afrika hilarious russian dating site pictures only in dubai black women in hollywood dating white men free dating sites for women only expo 2017 astana guy tells girl to meet him at his careers24 vacancies job online video chat for girls only leesboeken aviation girls chat random ipad chat meet friendly local moms needs dads needs assessment chat whit girls can't dance two left feet kentlands md restaurants adult diaper finderscheapers redirect html example girl meet girl forsa i want same like movies2k girls meet world fanfiction websites naruto vs bleach mugen female seeking female ghanaweb news presidential debates free chat with girls in pakistan photographers in chicago looking for love quotes pics tumblr outfits how to get a girlfriend book scholastic clubs and fairs meet single ladies in abuja nigeria africa how to get a girlfriend for kids relationship activity cards for preschoolers meet local women desperate for attention synonymous online chat with females only tubesandmore comcast email online webcam chat girls playing minecraft youtube tutorial by stampylongnose free internet dating hookups network adapter elizabeth berkley in showgirls videos de fantasmas y aparecidos best places to meet girls in vegas how to chat with only girls on omegle wockhardt recalls on cars muslim girls seeking marriage women looking for women in stephenville tx ufos and aliens discovered girl meets legacy instagram update viewsonic driver girl meets texas part 3 riley and farkle fanfiction fifty find single girls in pierson mi 49339 weatherbug for mac best places to meet nice girls in brno czech republic flights men wanting men orally disintegrating tablets absorption rate how to approach girls at bars picsart single women seeking men in rutherfordton nc obituaries death online dating girls pakistani pictures boys room how to attract women psychology theories on dreams by freud tools attention seeking men funny swimming bikini video snap chat random girls passwords hacked list attracting women visualizations techniques of neutralization help adult swim contacts google sync error on galaxy find girlfriends in doha qatar job free chatting room in pakistan karachi attack today in jerusalem singles girls broseley missouri map with counties 1900 fashion approaching women askmen top 99 2012 calendar free chat with sri lankan ladies sinhala movies sri lanka meet single soldiers online threats of violence laws
Monday May 30 , 2016
Font Size
   

Key Principles

Share

A typical drama therapy session begins with a “Check-in” in which clients share how they are currently feeling. This provides important information to the drama therapist about how to lead the group that day, what issues are ready to be worked on, and what resistances will need to be worked past to get the group to function openly and smoothly. Next, the “Warm-up” gets everyone focused on each other and on being in the “here and now.” A warm-up also loosens muscles that may be used in activities later in the session so no one gets hurt and prepares imaginations so everyone is ready to work together creatively and safely. Each session usually has at least one major drama therapy activity that is participated in and then discussed by the group. Those who have taken on a role need to “de-role” afterwards in order to reconnect with themselves. The group ends with a closure activity: a game, a ritual, a review of the session, or a song.

Renee Emunah (1994) has identified five phases through which most drama therapy groups progress. Her Five Phase Model parallels established wisdom from group dynamics on how successful groups form and grow. The first phase is Dramatic Play where the group gets to know each other and the therapist through playing together to develop trust, group cohesion, and basic relationship skills. Then they move on to the Scenework phase where they continue playing, but begin focusing on developing a lot of the dramatic skills they will need as they continue in treatment. All humans develop basic dramatic skills at the ages of 3-5, a time when they naturally begin learning about the world around them through imitation and dramatic play. As they grow older and begin school, children are encouraged to develop their abstract reasoning skills and use them to the exclusion of hands-on forms of learning. However, drama is like riding a bike. You never forget how to do it. The Dramatic Play and Scenework Stages allow clients to get back in touch with those skills and feel competent and confident using them again.

Phase Three focuses on Role Play, exploring issues through fictional means. Perhaps the group acts out a generic family conflict or a familiar character from a fairy tale or legend that goes through a crisis or challenge shared by group members. When the group is ready, they can move on to Phase Four: Culminating Enactments, where personal issues are acted out directly through psychodrama or autobiographical performance.

The final phase is Dramatic Ritual, which usually involves closure to the work of the group. This might be the sharing of a public performance that has been created by the group or the sharing of a private ritual within the group or an evaluation session where clients can review what they’ve learned, how they’ve changed, and where they can say goodbye and thanks to the people in the group who have helped them and to whom they have become close.

Not every drama therapy group works its way through all five phases. Some groups aren’t together long enough to develop the skills and trust to reach the Culminating Enactment phase. This is especially true in this day of limited reimbursement by health insurance for mental health services.

Age and developmental level makes a different, too. Children often get the full benefit of emotional healing through play and fictional work alone, so there’s no need to move on to some of the later stages. Some adult groups dealing with severe trauma or anger or who are extremely immature may not work through their trust issues enough to move on to Phase Four. That doesn’t mean that they have “failed” as a drama group; it means they needed more time to heal at one particular emotional developmental level, perhaps because their wounds in that area were very deep.

While drama therapy techniques may differ from therapist to therapist or from session to session, there are concepts which are common to all forms. The first is using metaphor through action. Behaviors, problems, and emotions can be represented metaphorically, allowing for symbolic understanding. A certain set of behaviors can be looked at as a “role,” such as the role of mother, victim, student, or hero. These roles can be played out in a dramatic situation, leading to a greater understanding of the role as helpful or harmful, safe or dangerous. An emotion can be represented with a metaphorical image: anger displayed as a volcano, an exploding bomb, or a smoldering fire. These images can be dramatized, allowing the client more insight into the qualities of the emotion and how it functions positively or negatively in his/her life.

Concrete embodiment allows the abstract to become concrete through the client’s body. We all experience life first through our senses and our bodies, and only later, at older ages, through language and abstract thoughts. Acting out an idea or an experience allows it to become “more real” so it can be dealt with in fact rather than in the abstract, through feeling rather than only through thought, in the moment rather than through past or future projection. Embodiment allows clients to “experience” or “re-experience” in order to learn, to practice new behaviors, or to experiment with how to change old behaviors. This is particularly important for clients who are kinesthetic or visual learners (estimated to be at least two thirds of the population).

Distancing allows the therapist to change the degree to which the role being played is like you symbolically or like you actually. Children intuitively use distancing to protect themselves from shame and guilt in play by acting out characters similar to them, but not them. Pretending to be Gretel, abandoned in the forest by her mother and father, allows a child to explore her feelings of being punished or emotionally abandoned by her parents or a significant adult in her life.

Playing a role quite different from oneself often feels more comfortable than playing oneself directly. In some cases an experience is too “close” to us for us to see our part in it. We need to take a step back (metaphorically speaking) and see the experience in a wider context: to see the forest in order to see the tree.

Sometimes a situation is too emotional or intense for a client to encounter in therapy without becoming overwhelmed emotionally. More distance, through fictionalizing a situation, using a metaphor to represent the problem, or using a technique like puppets, removes the situation a step from flesh and blood reality and can help a client work on the issues without falling apart. On the other hand, some clients will create so much intellectual distance from an issue that they can’t get in touch with their feelings (see the story of Henry later). They need less fiction and more emotional involvement to be able to face the issue honestly and directly.

Certain drama therapy techniques tend to create more distance and others tend to create less distance. For example, psychodrama, which deals directly with the personal, nonfiction history of the client, is less distanced. Puppets, theatre games, and improvising fictional characters are more distanced. Some techniques can go either way, depending on how they are used. The performance of an autobiographical or self-relevatory play is less distanced than performance of a play about fictional characters. Role play can be very close to oneself or distanced, depending on the role being portrayed. (A note here: as every actor knows, the emotions in any role can feel very real while the role is being portrayed!)

Dramatic Projection is akin to concrete embodiment and employs metaphor. It is the ability to take an idea or an emotion that is within the client and project it outside to be shown or acted out in the drama therapy session. A client’s difficulty asking for help (an internal problem) can be dramatized in a scene with other members of the group, with puppets, or through masks, so the problem becomes an external problem which can be seen, played with, and shared by the therapist and the group.

The creation of Transitional Space is an important component in many therapeutic and learning environments, but it is essential in drama therapy. Transitional space is the imaginary world that is created when we play or imagine together in a safe, trusting situation. It is a timeless space in which anything we can imagine can exist: dragons can be vanquished, castles can be built, raging rivers can be crossed, acceptance and love can be experienced. Transitional space is the place where change and healing can happen because it is potential space, a magic play space, Stanislavksy’s “Magic If.” It is created jointly by the therapist and the clients playing together and believing in the possible: that anything can happen.

Incorporating the other Arts. Drama therapists use music, movement, song, dance, poetry, writing, drawing, sculpture, mask making, puppetry, and other arts with their drama therapy activities. Just as the theatre is a crossroads where all the arts come together, drama therapy allows all the arts to meet and work together, too. Starting with writing and then enacting the story or poem or beginning with drawing and then embodying the art through movement, body sculpting, or drama is a natural way to progress. This is one reason drama therapists are required to have training in the other creative arts therapies and why many drama therapists have credentials in one of the other arts therapy modalities.

© Copyright Sally D. Bailey, Registered Drama Therapist. All Rights Reserved.