letrozole infertility multiple births morphine band shirt oxycontin money pak american made and shipped viagra tapiales prefabricados en el salvador bactrim ds dosing paroxetine 10mg information best online pharmacy no prescription androfin reviews on garcinia azulfidine sulfasalazine dosage for colitis where to buy levothroxine without an rx nexium vs prilosec which is better for ulcers percocet dosage testosterone cream reviews cheap viagra fast delivery yasmine petty before and after order codeine cough syrup online indinavir crixivan prescribing powerpill 100 misoprostol dosage to induce miscarriage parafortan tabse buy diapers with echeck kemadrin medication dictionary obat metronidazole non drowsy benadryl eltroxin 100mcg caverta 50 review viramune 200mg caffeine how long for propecia to work prandin side effects repaglinide prandin cuanto cuestan las pastillas cytotec vigrande pretty free viagra samples from pfizer pms ramipril 5mg capsules vigora oil buy viagra online in the us warfarin diet list generic wellbutrin in par side effects citalopram withdrawal symptoms irbesartan drug accutane express shipping viagra online with mastercard kosovarja gazeta shqiptare tirana chat linkit real cialis canada best rx pill what is purmycin used for ciales puerto rico zip code cialis in erboristeria myambutol ethambutol dosage paroxetine hcl 40mg tab haloperidol side effects dose brand viagra and cialis online buy ampiciline on line buy misoprostol uk cafergot medication marcumar therapy dog ativan for anxiety in the elderly bystolic 5 mg side effects weight gain canadian drugstore mall vasotec generic name tenormin medication prices flomax for kidney stones treatment chlamydia symptoms in women back pain eutirox 75 mcg synthroid where can i buy mirtazapine cheap dyazide generic shortage viagra sales cheap who takes echecks for pills order fluoxetine without prescription buying viagra online safety i need a viagra prescription where can i order some generic viagra propranolol clorhidrato 40 mg condyline pretentious viagra on line vipps prescription for cipro africa cilias forum al femminile valtrex order in canada actos pioglitazone daily cialis sales nexium generic name medication astelin nasal spray azelastine eye cialis abbassa la pressione lasixs water pill side effects hydroxyzine atarax for itching online pharmacy that takes amex card sublingual vitamin b12 benefits ropinirole 0.5mg what is it for clomid ovulation calendar grathazon kaplet technology parlodel dosage of aspirin frumil online zoloft legit online comprar viagras baratas kamagrafast crookston legitimate canadian pharmacy software update iphone flagyl overnight delivery cialis soft tab for sale nexium coupons ibuprofen and alcohol effects on liver ampicilina dosis vitamix vs blendtec review chloramphenicol 250 mg new primatene mist for sale infant motrin ingredients morphine withdrawal symptoms cold turkey cialis pills 20 mg bactroban side effects nexium otc equivalent where can i find viagra isoniazid drug medication mupirocin ointment uses buy cialis online uk no prescription how to use latisse for eyebrows dove posso comprare cialis percocet dosage side effects paracetamol indication drug uroxatral medication side effects rythmol medication cost natural pheromones for women to attract men omeprazole dr 20 mg capsule y9 amlodipine besylate en espanol losartan side effects cough buy indocin from india myambutol ati physical therapy how you get pfizer viagra zocor generic name hytrin side effects doctor bayer levitra pills dom zopiclone side effects cipla medicine list clonidine medication uses how much gabapentin to get high cialis powder vardenafil generika buy viagra online in usa prescription drugs online without minocycline for sale promethazine vc syrup medicine fin vicenza fitness mobicox tabletas digitalizadoras accutane birth defects photo amoxicillin 500 mg canadian pharmacy domperidone breastfeeding side effects effexor online without prescription ungheria viagra medameds complaints board ventolin inhalers for sale chloroquine resistant malaria treatment prilosec non prescription drug walmart mogadon nitrazepam benzodiazepines levitra coupons 20 mg can i buy silendifil citrate at boots viagra gold review viagra pfizer kaufen extenze pills review usa meds online review sertralina medicamento buy valium from india rxlist drug information side effects mercury drugstore medicine price list tadalafil overnight delivery letrozole 2.5 mg side effects viagra grapefruitsaft buy mirapex no prescription femara no prescription canada pharmacy oxybutynin side effects treatment www viagra for seal buying cialis online forum good high quality low cost viagra 50 mg buy orlistat 60 mg with no prescription tpremarin without prescription clozapine monitoring forms buy cephalosporin can you buy doxycycline online vigrande 50mg actos generic cost glucovance 5 500 side effects sifrol 0 18 mg concerta advair without referral cardura medication decadron injection cpt code primox g valium 5mg tidak menggemukkan meaning costco auto program lease cialis buy sweden generic cialis 200mg pills cefaclor monohydrate side effects albendazol order on line ciprobay xr 1000mg tamoxifen side effects in women non prescription viagra drug nizoral tablets no rx where is promethazine over the counter cialis samples without prescrpition cefabiot suspension lifts generic viagra prices vrdrug reviews on garcinia xenical side effects forum buy xenical online without rx dermasone cream 0.025 top rated sites to buy viagra kamagra price in india maxalt side effects depression para q es la pastilla allegra d cheap aciclovir tablets for sale seroxat withdrawal symptoms myambutol 400mg diphenhydramine name brand cialis online cipla adipex side effects 37.5 buy clomid with mastercard seroxat antidepressant patients casodex side effects bicalutamide tablets cardinal stritch university athletics voltaren side effects gel/cream xenical diet pills for sale xylocaine jelly 2 usage cost of colcrys medication leukeran side effects in cats mirtazapine for dogs how long to work levitra vs cialis drugs pravachol generic side effects asthma drugs no prescription strong kamagra prescriptions on line topiramate without a script norapred para que sirve buy compazine suppositories tretinoin without prescription does shoppers drug mart sell viagra cialis daily review elifemeds reviews on fifty levitra online best price septrin antibiotic side effect 120mg erectile tablets over the counter colchicine prostata sintomas cancer buy synthroid mexico no rx viagra lidocaine hydrochloride jelly 2 uses buspar reviews buspirone viagra gel sachets uk xanax bars alprazolam viagra soft tabs fasigyn forte lightingfeldene article 91 viagra no prescription benazepril medication 20mg antabuse medication uses cheap lexapro captopril generic name doxylamine side effects blood pressure amphetamine salt combo tablet around world pharmacy review ezetimibe 10mg simvastatin 80mg side cialis compresse 5 mg hydrochlorothiazide side effects sildegra nedirajte astromenda search removal tool can i take zithromax for strep throat escitalopram 10mg side effects weight loss suhagra 50mg clomid viagra pill price samonas realty portsmouth nh dilantin levels seizures mometasone furoate cream usp 0.1 for rectal pain tinidazole treatment for bv ciprodex otic suspension 7.5ml coupon revista kosovarja nr i fundit lavestra tablettask lialda medication prices amoxicillin buy canada 168 cheapdrugs no diamox side effects medication flagyl buy no prescription discount leukeran for dogs buy viagra with a check atepros drug mart 365pills reviews fertomid 50mg diane keaton hairstyle pictures augmentin antibiotic side effects buy strattera online cheap avelox 400 mg used biaxin xl 500mg tablets sublingual viagra lopressor side effects cough generic viagra no prescription buy kamagra spain maestro cialis prices at walmart vitamix blender recipes viagra online no precription vegetal vigra review rxlist com generic name cheapest cialis 5mg buy alstace online withour prescription finasteride side effects unwritten buy cialis super active paypal prevacid side effects in infants can you buy orlistat flonase over the counter coupon magnesium citrate liquid buy coversyl online canada vistaril medication for sleep lerk jet sildenafil maxalt side effects medication prilosec otc side effects headache canadian viagra 200mg comptar cialis sin receta medica en usa viagra price in ksa toradol shot for migraine kegunaan obat grathazon 0greenvigrahaelthymanhaloperidol polarmeds in canada do suspects kamagra oral jelly kaufen betnovate cream fr discount cialis from canada zanaflex capsules 6mg paroxetine hcl 20mg 10mg doxazosin 8 mg used for tinidazole vs metronidazole for bv prescription painkillers online obat acyclovir cream arthritis gloves with copperarthrotec where to buy aricept non prescription gout medicine cialis 20 mg best price ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.45 clavupen gutis girl generic viagra kaufen online pharmacies prednisone 10mg alzen medicament duetact medication interaction nexium 18 dollars a month can i take cephalexin for sinus infection how legit are online viagra sale auslandsapotheke holland viagra artane medication classification canada pharmacy mail order provera without prescription online pharmiacies flexeril dosages pill colors styplon tablets on sale prednisolone for sale online colitis diet cheapest place to buy cialis or viagra buy propecia online ukraine brand levitra amantadine hcl 100mg cap phenergan suppository for morning sickness buy strattera online elimite 5 cream 60gm diamox medication dosage bentyl 20 mg uses confidex rfid tag ditropan xl 10mg generic romanian pharmacy online benadryl dosage for dogs dose onlain tamashebi acivir 200 dts aldactone spironolactone side effects buy tadacip 20 mg cod pharmacy online no prescription furosemida buy zoloft cheap no rx buy metformin online canada medications from mexico viagra chennai naprosyn medication information buy test booster uk picareta server rack roaccutan usa buy ed drugs comparison clindamycin for dogs dyazide generic capsule pictures can you take valtrex and breastfeedingvalvirexvantin buy furosemide 20mg cialis dosage tramadol hcl 50 mg treatment ivermectin horse wormer for dogs exelon patch treatment alzheimers disease thiazide diuretica cardinal health jobs in dublin ohio cialis canada paypal 5mg zyprexa usa temovate ointment medication roxithromycin for dogs magnesium oxide benefits propecia best price wellbutrin withdrawal symptoms side effects cabgolin cabergoline dostinex caffeine and pregnancy studies buy albuterol inhaler venlafaxine 37.5mg tab methylprednisolone urinary infection magnesium rich foods and drinks fertomid clomid liquidex rui products viagra no prescription india cardinal bank woodbridge va tadalafil 20 mg side effects fast viagra 3 5 days canada cialis pharmacy where to buy hydrochlorothizide 25mg clomid interaction with royal jelly lumigan drops couponslupillluvox myambutol ethambutol buy bactrim online viagra 100 mg non generic low cost nolvadex without a prescription fluoxetine hcl 10mg side effects plavix 75 mg side effects purchase abortion pill online cialis suppliers non prescription viagra alternative cronadyn en usa ciprodex sterile otic suspension uses fluoxetine 10mg for dogs valtrex dosage for shingles treatment order peractin online doxycycline hyclate 100mg online viagra libero cheap prescription drug canada lantus patient assistance program walmart price for viagra latisse md reviews entocort budesonide capsules buy online starcef 100mg morphine aldactone 100 mg price cialis work after ejaculate walgreens photo coupon code 2015 pharmacy 4 u uk biaxin without prescription overnight best buy on alegra d 12 hour on line us pharmacy cheap cialis overnight delivery bactrim tablets used f propranolol for migraines reviews mirtazapine for sleep disorders remeron for anxiety luvox reviews for anxiety omnicef side effects antibiotics for dogs diovan 320 mg generic equivalent ordering florinef online ciproxin 500 kencing nanah cialis and levitra together percocet withdrawal symptoms how long do they last prednisone 40 mg online lanoxin medication side effects flonase over the counter equivalent atacand side effects chest tightnessavalide side effects irbesartan 300 raymeds complaints against companies meclizine 12.5 mg side effects androgel 1.62 discount card euthyrox 25 weight loss exelon myhr benefits citrato de sildenafil cialis over night shipping pasangma versus viagra pfizer connection to care lipitor memory loss statins liquidex bodybuilding supplement saroten 25mg trazodone want to order viagra cialis online levitra super aggression buy nitroglycerin ointment ativan side effects in elderly metronidazole obat apa dianabol information methandrostenolone wintomylon vademecum farmaceutico canadian pharmacy z pack cheap order clomid without rx medicstar reviews of fifty sleeping pills without prescription betnesol tablets viagra kaufen angebote enalapril maleate side effects in dogs progesterone only birth control pills and weight gain cialis online canada fast delivery side effects of lumigan eye drops for glaucoma how to write a pres for predisione buy primatene mist in canada buy tadalafil using paypal singulair medicine for asthma pravachol lipitor comparison naprosyn buy on lotemax gel package insert benicar medication manufacturer atenolol drug interactions side effects ativan lorazepam dosage dose fungsi obat grafazol 500 metronidazole gel cialis reviews 5mg cialis rezeptfrei england non prescription xanax canada propecia cheap online puppies for sale in ohio diamox side effects symptoms mexico no prescription generic cialis black 800mg drugstore online promo codes
Monday August 31 , 2015
Font Size

What is Drama Therapy?


Drama therapy applies techniques from theatre to the process of psychotherapeutic healing. Beginning in the early 20th century drama was used by occupational therapists in hospitals and by social workers in community programs to each clients social and emotional skills through performing in plays.  The field began to integrate improvisation and process drama methods and emerged as a separate profession in the 1970's. The focus in drama therapy is on helping individuals grow and heal by taking on and practicing new roles, by creating new stories through action, and by rehearsing new behaviors which can later be implemented in real life.

While much drama therapy aims at helping people who are in therapy, drama therapists have extended their applications beyond clinical contexts to enrich the lives of at-risk individuals, to prevent problems, and to enhance wellness of healthy people. Many of the skills for such extensions require a measure of training psychological training as well as a strong basis in theatre.

Drama and therapy have been natural partners for at least the last 350 centuries! Archeological evidence suggests that early humans began to make art paintings, sculpture, music, dance, and drama between 45,000 and 35,000 years ago at the same time they became capable of symbolic, metaphoric thought. As part of this creative explosion, shamans incorporated the arts into their religious and healing practices. Dance and drama, in particular, were used in rites to create sympathetic and contagious magic and to embody myths and rituals. That the arts have been connected to healing and meaning-making since their origins, shows how vitally important they are to health and to civilization. In fact, recent scientific research by Gene Cohen (2005), James Pennebaker (1995), Helga and Tony Noice (2004), and others is proving that participation in drama and other arts enhance physical and mental health.

Drama and psychology are both the study of human behavior - two sides of the same coin. Psychologist Philip Zimbardo acknowledges this when he says, "Drama, psychology, and therapy share a basic goal of trying to find what is essential about human nature and try to use that knowledge to improve the quality of individual and collective life.  When drama is good, it transmits knowledge about what is essential about people and between people" (Zimbardo, 1986).  Psychology studies thoughts, emotions and behavior; drama actively analyzes and presents the thoughts, emotions and behavior of characters for an audience to see and understand. Much of dramatic literature addresses the psychological, social, and cultural conditions of humanity and, thus, serves as a natural vehicle for actually helping real people with problems more consciously address their problems.

Just as psychotherapy treats people who have difficulties with their thoughts, emotions and behavior, drama therapy uses drama processes (games, improvisation, storytelling, role play) and products (puppets, masks, plays/performances) to help people understand their thoughts and emotions better or to improve their behavior. However, unlike most types of therapy which rely purely on talking (psychoanalysis was, after all, called “the talking cure”), drama therapy relies on taking action on doing things!

The drama therapist is trained in four general areas: drama/theatre, general and abnormal psychology, psychotherapy, and drama therapy. Each of these categories involves a number of required classes, many of them experiential, where one learns by doing, practicing, getting supervisory feedback, and refining skills. In the end, the drama therapist is able to facilitate the client’s experience in a way that keeps the client emotionally and physically safe while the client benefits from the dramatic process.

Because there are so many forms that drama can take, drama therapy can be considered a very broad field. The metaphor I like to use with my students is to say there is a very big “Drama Therapy Pie” which can be cut into many smaller slices:

The Drama Therapy Pie

Depending on the goals and needs of the client, the drama therapist chooses a method (or several) that will achieve the desired combination of understanding, emotional release, and learning of new behavior. Some methods, such as drama games, improvisation, role play, developmental transformations, sociodrama and psychodrama are very process-oriented and unscripted. The work is done within the therapy session and not presented to an audience. Other methods, such as Playback Theatre, Theatre of the Oppressed, and the performance of plays are more formal and presentational, involving an audience. Puppets, masks, and rituals can be used as part of performance or as process techniques within a therapy session.

Certain techniques: drama games, improvisation, role play, sociodrama, developmental transformations, rituals, masks, puppets and some types of performances involve fictional work. The client pretends to be a character different from him or herself. This can expand the client’s role repertoire (or the number of types of roles that can be accessed for use in real life) or it can allow the client to explore a similar role to one he or she plays, but under the guise of “not-me-but-someone-like-me.” Other techniques, such as Psychodrama, Therapeutic Spiral Model, Playback Theatre, Theater of the Oppressed and autobiographical performances, allow the client to explore his or her life directly. Clients need to have good ego strength to be able to do this kind of non-fiction work because it requires an honest, searching look at oneself.

Most drama therapists come from the world of theatre. They are individuals who realize the healing power of drama through therapeutic experiences they’ve had in their education or career and want to facilitate change and growth in others. Many recall that in college they were torn between majoring in psychology or theatre and decided to follow the theatre path. They want to use drama to help others in a direct way or to use theatre as a social change agent, rather than only as entertainment or education.

A smaller percentage of drama therapists come from the field of therapy. They have a Masters or Ph.D. degree in social work, psychology, or counseling and realize that talk therapy isn’t enough; they want to use hands on, creative ways of exploring problems and practicing behavior changes with clients. Most have been involved in educational or community theater for many years; some have little or no theatre experience.

© Copyright Sally D. Bailey, Registered Drama Therapist. All Rights Reserved.